Department of Archaeology

The Department of Archaeology was established in the University of Malakand in 2011. The department offers regular 2 years Master of Arts in Archaeology.

Archaeology is the scientific study of past human culture and behaviour from the origin of human to the present. It studies past human behaviour through the examination of material remains of previous human societies.

Archaeology is a discipline that involves observation, exploration, excavation, recording, preservation, conservation and reconstruction of the human past.

Hiuen Tsang, Chinese pilgrim, who visited Gandhara in the early 7th century A.D, the kingdom of Gandhara formed the tract of country on the west bank of the Indus which included the Peshawar valley and modern Swat, Buner, Dir and Bajaur. Gandhara was the cradle of Buddhist Civilization and gave birth to the famous Gandhara Art.

Malakand division is one of the most important regions of Pakistan both culturally and historically, for instance Swat, ancient (Udiyana) Bajaur and Dir. Similarly the history of Dir goes back to at least the 2nd millennium B.C, which testified by the excavation of numerous burials of Aryans at Timargarha and other places dating from 18th to 6 century B.C. The Aryans were followed by the Achaemenians, who were defeated by Alexander the great in 327 B.C. During his invasion he faced difficulties in subjugating the local people. In this way the Greek historian have paid great tributes to the local inhabitant, the army and the queen of Massaga an ancient site near the modern Zairat village, situated between Chakdara and Timargarha.

After the Greeks the area witnessed the Gandhara Civilization, which achieved great fame. This period is signified by the presence of the monumental remains of the Buddhist stupas and monasteries.

The cosmopolitan art of Gandhara, with influences from Indian, Greek, Roman and Persian artists, appeared in this region in the 1st century B.C, strengthened in the 1st A.D, flourished till 5th century A.D.
Dir occupied an important position as a Centre of Gandhara Art. The Pilgrims and historians have defined Gandhara is the combination of two Sanskrit words Gand which means Land while Hara means Fragrance / beauty, (the land of fragrance and beauty, as the area to the west of Indus and north of Kabul rivers which included the valleys of Peshawar, Charsadda, Swabi, Mardan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Bajaur, extending westwards to Bamiyan in Afghanistan and Taxila valley on Punjab in the east.

The important Gandhara sites in the vicinity of Dir lower include Andan Dheri, Chat Pat, Gumbatuna, Bumbolai, Ramora, Damkot, Balambat, Jandol, Nasafa, Macho, Jabagai and Shalizar.  


The department is devoted to produce true professionals in various fields of Archaeology at Master level.

Aims and Objectives

Archaeology is the study of cultural material remains by ancient people. Thus the maintenance aim of Archaeology is the reconstructed of the past of human race through systematic approach today many archaeologist are involved with the definition of theoretical system for the approach to interpretation.

In theory all archaeological study is aimed toward an explanation a conceptual basis for the reconstruction of the past.

  • To conduct investigation, excavation, explanation, publications, recording, preservation and promotion of cultural heritage in the area in particular and Pakistan in general.
  • To convey quality education in the field of Archaeology through multidisciplinary and thematic approach.
  • To provide skilled professionals to different institutions conducting teaching and research in the field of Archaeology and Museology.
  • To promote the management of cultural heritage and preservation of cultural assets.
  • To play a vital role in furthering the understanding of Archaeological and historical past of Pakistan.
Degree Programs:
  • BS Programs (4-year programs, leads to 16-years education)

Teaching Feculty

  1. Mr. Jan Muhammad
    Incharge of the Department / Incharge, Students Societies
    M.A. Archaeology, University of Peshawar

University of Malakand - Pakistan